Sometimes students are puzzled by the fact that teachers give them assignments on complicated and adverse topics, such as abuse, serious illnesses and other occurrences in human life that can make one feel distressed, especially if these assignments contain a morally debated issue. A breast cancer essay is not an assignment students take without second thought. On the contrary, most students keep asking why they even need to write essays on such adverse topics.
Well, the reason is evident – while you are working on a breast cancer essay, you increase your own awareness, as well as the awareness of all the people who are in the group, if this is a group assignment, or even in your entire class. Even if you don’t get a chance to present your research in front of the class, you still must acquire valuable information while doing the research to write the paper.
Nevertheless, we understand that such topics can be particularly stressful, and we are always ready to help. First of all, check these sample essays to get a better idea how you can handle this topic in writing. Secondly, you can always place an order to get an essay created by our academic writers. We will make college education easy and fun for you!
Should Women Who Struggled with Cancer Have Babies?
A tumor or cancer is by definition a neoplastic process where abnormal cellular growth takes place and in which all the newly formed tumor cells are descendants of a single cell that gained the ability to replicate continuously and autonomously (Alison pt. 3; ch. 39).
Accordingly to World Health Organization (WHO), cancer, which accounted for 8.8 million deaths in 2015 (being the second cause of death globally) is expected to increase by about 70% in the next twenty years putting this question right before our eyes (who.int).
There are several types of cancer and thus we cannot generalize but some previous studies on breast cancer and pregnancy concluded that “is possible for women treated for breast cancer and does not seem to be associated with a worse prognosis for their breast cancer although this evidence was not conclusive as some factors, namely the non representation of the entire population and the ‘healthy mother effect’ could influentiate the conclusions“ (Surbone et al.). A similar conclusion was drawn from women treated for Hodgkin Lymphoma, as “no significant associations between pregnancy outcomes and therapeutic approaches were found“ (De Sanctis et al.).
However recent studies have concluded that women treated for cervical cancer had elevated risk of “preterm birth and low birth weight when compared to unexposed women and women with cervical diagnostic procedures” suggesting that “increased risk derives from the treatment itself, not from the characteristics” (Weinmann et al.).
Another study concluded that “women with a breast cancer history were at higher risk of delivering a preterm birth (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA) infant, especially if they received chemotherapy or gave birth within 2 years of their breast cancer diagnosis date“ changing the prior paradigm (Black et al.).
Despite some controversy in the facts about cancer and pregnancy, scientists agree that further investigation is needed to address this particular question but maybe we need to address it from different points of view, as scientific knowledge should pave the way but ethical questions should also be asked.
Alison, Malcolm. The Cancer Handbook. 2nd ed. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.
“Cancer”, World Health Organization, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/. Accessed 14 Mar. 2017.
Surbone, A., et al. Cancer And Pregancy. 2008, http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-540-71274-9.
De Sanctis, Vitaliana, et al. “Impact of Different Treatment Approaches on Pregnancy Outcomes in 99 Women Treated for Hodgkin Lymphoma.” International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, vol. 84, no. 3, Nov. 2012, pp. 755–761, doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.12.066.
Weinmann, Sheila, et al. “Pregnancy Outcomes after Treatment for Cervical Cancer Precursor Lesions: An Observational Study.” PLOS ONE, edited by Maria Lina Tornesello, vol. 12, no. 1, Jan. 2017, p. e0165276, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165276.
Black, Kristin Zeneé, et al. “Prevalence of Preterm, Low Birthweight, and Small for Gestational Age Delivery after Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Population-Based Study.” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 19, no. 1, Breast Cancer Research, Dec. 2017, p. 11, doi:10.1186/s13058-017-0803-z.
Essay about Breast Cancer. Variant II
How to Reduce the Risk of Having Breast Cancer?
Today, breast cancer ranks second after skin cancer regarding prevalence among women around the world. Unfortunately, the morbidity rate is growing every year, regardless of the women’s race or ethnicity. The most frightening in this disease is that breast cancer is rather complicated to detect in the first stages. Thereby, when a woman is diagnosed with this type of cancer, the tumor is already progressing. It is very difficult to cure, the treatment is painful and not always successful. For this reason, mortality from breast cancer is also one of the highest among other types of cancer. In view of this, it is essential to take all possible measures to reduce the risk of having breast cancer.
According to this year World Cancer Research Fund International analysis (2017), the main factors that lower the risk of breast cancer were determined. Among them were the balanced diet, reducing alcohol consumption, maintaining the weight norm, physical activity. A significant part of the diet is choosing the right foods. It is necessary to exclude foods that are high in fat and low in fiber, and avoid consuming foods and drinks that are high in sugar. To do this, one should eat less fast food and other energy-dense products, and replace them with relatively unprocessed energy-dense foods rich in beneficial vegetable oils. It will also be useful to reduce the portions. Increasing the diet share of grains and legumes, as well as vegetables and fruits without starch, will also have a positive effect. It is recommended to eat at least five servings of vegetables and fruits a day, and limit the consumption of refined starchy foods. Fruit of different colors, such as red, yellow, white, purple, orange, and the allium vegetables, such as garlic, will be healthy as well. As for the meat products, a woman should consume less red meat and avoid the processed one. It is essential to reduce salt intake and minimize the amount of moldy cereals and grains in food. In addition, any dietary supplements negatively affect the diet and do not contribute to the risk reduction. It should be mentioned that it is better not to drink alcohol for the prevention of cancer. If it can not be eliminated from the diet completely, it would be rational to minimize its consumption. It is still unknown how exactly alcohol affects the development of cancer in women and which women are more affected by it, but the restriction in its consumption is vital for women who have other risk factors such as cases of breast cancer in close relatives.
According to the research, such problems as obesity, overweight and weight gain increase the risk of developing 11 cancer types, and breast cancer is one of them. The maintaining of healthy weight will help to reduce the danger of having the disease. This is specifically immediate for the women after menopause since it is associated with the estrogen production in fat tissues. Regular exercising and a balanced diet should contribute to keeping a woman’s weight low within the healthy range. Generally, women need to avoid increases in the waist and weight gain during adulthood, however, excessive weight gained in childhood can encumber to do it.
The next advice is to maintain physical activity. A woman should dedicate to the moderate physical exercise at least 30 minutes a day. Fast walking or jogging can be good equivalents, but also exercises can be part of transport, occupational, leisure, and household activity. The small physical drills several times a day will be more effective than one long training session. Yet it is worth keeping in mind not only to exercise but also to rest after it, so as not to overwork the body and accumulate the energy spent. However, it is even better if one has an opportunity to exercise longer and more intensely. Also, a woman should not forget about the limitation of sedentary habits, especially with regard to sitting work, watching TV and cooking. It does not matter how much exercise you get, as sitting increases the chance of cancer development, especially for women. This will speed up the metabolism and spend the accumulated energy.
Breastfeeding mothers compound a separate risk group. According to the results of the study, to a large extent, the risk is not related to the number of children breastfed, although it was observed that prolonged breastfeeding led to a lower risk of breast cancer (Brinton et al., 1995). If a mother is able to, she is recommended to breastfeed her baby for about six months. This implies the rejection of any additional food except for mother’s milk. Thus, breastfeeding contributes to the health of both mother and child.
Another important factor to pay attention to is the avoidance of hormone therapy. In the past, Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was commonly used as a remedy against cold sweats, flashes of heat during the menopause. “But researchers now know that postmenopausal women who take a combination of estrogen and progestin may be more likely to develop breast cancer” (Simon, 2016). Only five years after the end of the course of hormone intake, the risk of breast cancer is reduced to the standard level.
In addition, it is necessary to remember about the importance of regular health checks. Studies and screenings do not help protect against cancer, but they signal the appearance of threatening signs like polyps in the intestines or suspicious moles. Specialists recommend starting testing from the age of 20. Women need to do mammography every year after they turn 45. It is always better to recognize the disease beforehand and take the necessary measures than to miss the moment and cure with expensive and painful methods.
Considering all the above, it is crucial for women to be aware of the risk of having breast cancer and of the basic measures to prevent it. Of course, there are many other risk factors to be taken into account, but compliance with these methods alone will lead to a significant improvement of the situation. As the fight against this disease remains one of the greatest problems of our time and requires constant active strivings of the world community. Following the methods described here, women will be able to significantly protect their health. All these measures are simple to practice and should not take a lot of effort and time. Nowadays, a person can easily afford to monitor personal weight and diet, find time for daily exercise and training, give up on bad habits. It is not such a big payment for staying healthy and not to have such a terrible disease as breast cancer.
Wcrf.org. (2017). Breast cancer | World Cancer Research Fund International. [online] Available at: http://wcrf.org/int/research-we-fund/continuous-update-project-findings-reports/breast-cancer [Accessed 7 Sep. 2017].
Brinton, L., Potischman, N., Swanson, C., Schoenberg, J., Coates, R., Gammon, M., Malone, K., Stanford, J. and Daling, J. (1995). Breastfeeding and breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes & Control, 6(3), pp.199-208.
Simon, S. (2016). Five Ways to Reduce Your Breast Cancer Risk. [online] Cancer.org. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/latest-news/five-ways-to-reduce-your-breast-cancer-risk.html [Accessed 7 Sep. 2017].
Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected.
Cancer harms the body when altered cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors (except in the case of leukemia where cancer prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream). Tumors can grow and interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems, and they can release hormones that alter body function. Tumors that stay in one spot and demonstrate limited growth are generally considered to be benign.
More dangerous, or malignant, tumors form when two things occur:
- a cancerous cell manages to move throughout the body using the blood or lymphatic systems, destroying healthy tissue in a process called invasion
- that cell manages to divide and grow, making new blood vessels to feed itself in a process called angiogenesis.
When a tumor successfully spreads to other parts of the body and grows, invading and destroying other healthy tissues, it is said to have metastasized. This process itself is called metastasis, and the result is a serious condition that is very difficult to treat.
According to the American Cancer Society, Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the US and accounts for nearly 1 of every 4 deaths. The World Health Organisation estimates that, worldwide, there were 14 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths in 2012 (their most recent data).
Individual types of cancer
There are said to be over 200 different types of cancer. We have the following common cancer types covered in individual Knowledge Center articles:
Latest cancer research
We are a leading publisher of worldwide cancer news and research. You can find all our latest news in our cancer news section.
The rest of this article will focus on what cancer is, what causes cancer, the symptoms, diagnosis and available treatments.
Here are some key points about cancer. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.
- More than 575,000 people die of cancer, and more than 1.5 million people are diagnosed with cancer per year in the US.
- Cancer is considered to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
- The financial costs of cancer in the US per year are an estimated $263.8 billion in medical costs and lost productivity.
- African Americans are more likely to die of cancer than people of any other race or ethnicity.
- It is believed that cancer risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco, limiting alcohol intake, limiting UV ray exposure from the sun and tanning beds and maintaining a healthy diet, level of fitness and seeking regular medical care.
- Screening can locate cervical cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer at an early, treatable stage.
- Vaccines such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine assists in preventing some cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and oral cancers. A vaccine for hepatitis B can reduce liver cancer risk.
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the numbers of new cancer cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next 20 years.
- The most common sites of cancer among men are lung, prostate, colon, rectum, stomach and liver.
- The most common sites of cancer among women are breast, colon, rectum, lung, cervix and stomach.
How cancer spreads
Scientists reported in Nature Communications (October 2012 issue) that they have discovered an important clue as to why cancer cells spread. It has something to do with their adhesion (stickiness) properties. Certain molecular interactions between cells and the scaffolding that holds them in place (extracellular matrix) cause them to become unstuck at the original tumor site, they become dislodged, move on and then reattach themselves at a new site.
The researchers say this discovery is important because cancer mortality is mainly due to metastatic tumors, those that grow from cells that have traveled from their original site to another part of the body. These are called secondary tumors. Only 10% of cancer deaths are caused by the primary tumors.
The scientists, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, say that finding a way to stop cancer cells from sticking to new sites could interfere with metastatic disease, and halt the growth of secondary tumors.
Malignant cells are more agile than non-malignant ones
Scientists from the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers, USA, reported in the journal Scientific Reports (April 2013 issue) that malignant cells are much “nimbler” than non-malignant ones. Malignant cells can pass more easily through smaller gaps, as well as applying a much greater force on their environment compared to other cells.
Professor Robert Austin and team created a new catalogue of the physical and chemical features of cancerous cells with over 100 scientists from 20 different centers across the United States.
The authors believe their catalogue will help oncologists detect cancerous cells in patients early on, thus preventing the spread of the disease to other parts of the body.
Prof. Austin said "By bringing together different types of experimental expertise to systematically compare metastatic and non-metastatic cells, we have advanced our knowledge of how metastasis occurs."
Causes of cancer
Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. Programmed cell death is called apoptosis, and when this process breaks down, cancer begins to form. Unlike regular cells, cancer cells do not experience programmatic death and instead continue to grow and divide. This leads to a mass of abnormal cells that grows out of control.
What is cancer? - Video
A short, 3D, animated introduction to cancer. This was originally created by BioDigital Systems and used in the Stand Up 2 Cancer telethon.
Genes - the DNA type
Cells can experience uncontrolled growth if there are mutations to DNA, and therefore, alterations to the genes involved in cell division. Four key types of gene are responsible for the cell division process: oncogenes tell cells when to divide, tumor suppressor genes tell cells when not to divide, suicide genes control apoptosis and tell the cell to kill itself if something goes wrong, and DNA-repair genes instruct a cell to repair damaged DNA.
Cancer occurs when a cell's gene mutations make the cell unable to correct DNA damage and unable to commit suicide. Similarly, cancer is a result of mutations that inhibit oncogene and tumor suppressor gene function, leading to uncontrollable cell growth.
Carcinogens are a class of substances that are directly responsible for damaging DNA, promoting or aiding cancer. Tobacco, asbestos, arsenic, radiation such as gamma and x-rays, the sun, and compounds in car exhaust fumes are all examples of carcinogens. When our bodies are exposed to carcinogens, free radicals are formed that try to steal electrons from other molecules in the body. Theses free radicals damage cells and affect their ability to function normally.
Genes - the family type
Cancer can be the result of a genetic predisposition that is inherited from family members. It is possible to be born with certain genetic mutations or a fault in a gene that makes one statistically more likely to develop cancer later in life.
Cancer and other medical factors
As we age, there is an increase in the number of possible cancer-causing mutations in our DNA. This makes age an important risk factor for cancer. Several viruses have also been linked to cancer such as: human papillomavirus (a cause of cervical cancer), hepatitis B and C (causes of liver cancer), and Epstein-Barr virus (a cause of some childhood cancers). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - and anything else that suppresses or weakens the immune system - inhibits the body's ability to fight infections and increases the chance of developing cancer.
On the next page we look at the symptoms of cancer and how cancer is classified and diagnosed. On the final page we discuss treatments for cancer.