Soil Erosion And Conservation Essay

Soil Feeds

When soil is protected, it helps plants create more nutrients our bodies need, like protein.

Can soil make protein?

The billions of microbes living in healthy soil produce amino acids, which plants convert to protein. If neglected, these precious microbes are lost from the soil.


Soil Cleans

Healthy, vibrant soil can help keep the environment cleaner and healthier.

Does soil prevent erosion?

Nutrient-rich soil has a strong, stable structure. When mismanaged, soil loses the structure causing dust clouds to form, increasing erosion and air pollution.


Soil Protects

When properly managed, soil protects plants from harm.

Can soil defend plants?

Bacteria, fungi and other microbes living in healthy soil form a natural defense from pests and disease. Infertile, mismanaged soil has fewer microbes, putting plants at risk.


Soil Unlocks Human Potential

Since the dawn of agriculture, food has become more accessible to more people. In large part, this is due to soil. Fertile soil leads to better harvests which helps meet our most basic needs. Those living in countries with healthy soil are then free to think, invent, create and imagine new possibilities. When humans are properly nourished, they do amazing things.

Soil Erosion Essay

Soil Erosion

Introduction

The term soil erosion generally means the destruction of soil by the action of wind and water. Some authors have modified this definition to include damage that is caused as a result of human actions. (D. Zachar p. 22)

Soil erosion causes a lot of damage. Apart from environmental damage involved, the financial losses associated with soil erosion are immense. For instance, America loses between $30 billion and $44 billion to soil erosion annually (Pimental et al 1993), whereas The United Kingdom also loses about £90 million (Environment Agency 1989).

The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of soil erosion, its effects on the environment and the solutions available to control it, for the purpose of academic study.

The Causes of Soil Erosion

Soil erosion is mostly caused by climatic factors. They include rainfall and wind as the major factors. Other factors that contribute to soil erosion are mostly caused by human activities. Such activities include mining, urbanization and vegetative clearing. The topography of the land also contributes to soil erosion.

Rainfall intensity contributes greatly to soil erosion. It is usually the main agent of erosion. The amount of intensity influences the magnitude of the erosion. It is the most critical factor. The greater the intensity of the rainstorm, the greater the runoff and consequently, soil erosion. (Blanco, Lal p 29).

Vegetative clearing is another factor that contributes to soil erosion. It is estimated that about 1 million hectares were cleared from the year 2000 to 2010. (SOE 2011 Report). Vegetation has a great role in preventing soil erosion. It reduces the destructive energy of rain by increasing the soil roughness. This is effective in slowing the runoff velocity. The vegetation also filters the soil particles in the runoff thus preventing further erosion. With less vegetation, the detachment of soil particles increases thus making the soil prone to erosion. Although vegetation is crucial in providing cover and averting erosion, not all vegetation play this role effectively. Dense and short growing form of vegetation, for instance, grass, is preferable to sparse and tall vegetation. Dense canopies also limit splash erosion therefore reducing soil erosion. . (Blanco, Lal p 29).

Population pressure greatly contributes to soil erosion. In China, for example an exponential rise in erosion with a rise in the total population was recorded since 220 BC (Wen, 1993). When the population is large, land becomes scarce, forcing people to farm on marginal land. The farming practices carried out on these lands are usually unwise and therefore lead to soil erosion (R. P. C. Morgan). For example, people often farm in mountainous regions such as The Himalayas in China thus exposing the soils to soil erosion. Rural to urban migration...

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