Figuration Music Definition Essay

Ragtime

Ragtime, a uniquely American, syncopated musical phenomenon, has been a strong presence in musical composition, entertainment, and scholarship for over a century. It emerged in its published form during the mid-1890s and quickly spread across the continent via published compositions. By the early 1900s ragtime flooded the music publishing industry. The popularity and demand for ragtime also boosted sale of pianos and greatly swelled the ranks of the recording industry. Ragtime seemed to emanate primarily from the southern and midwestern states with the majority of activity occurring in Missouri - although the East and West coasts also had their share of composers and performers. Ragtime's popularity promptly spread to Europe and there, as in America, soon became a fad.

Playlist

During the early 1900s, America's musical heartbeat was syncopated and seemingly omnipresent. Although the classic piano works by Joplin and others of his ilk were not part of the recorded repertoire, there was plenty of raggy music committed to record. Here is a diverse group of performers from a cimbalom soloist to a military band demonstrating their take on this popular style.

It is not easy to define ragtime. Like jazz, another distinctly American musical art form, ragtime's composers, practitioners, and admirers each see its boundaries differently. However, these groups are distinguished by subgroups of purists who generally agree on, and stand by, a precise definition:

Ragtime - A genre of musical composition for the piano, generally in duple meter and containing a highly syncopated treble lead over a rhythmically steady bass. A ragtime composition is usually composed three or four contrasting sections or strains, each one being 16 or 32 measures in length.

This definition describes much of the music of the itinerant pianists who traversed the South and Midwest and eventually congregated in Missouri to produce an oeuvre of core ragtime compositions. These roving composers include Scott Joplin, Charles Hunter, Thomas Turpin, Louis Chauvin, Charles L. Johnson, and many others.

Some ragtime scholars point out that ragtime is composed chiefly for an audience - a pianistic work not meant for dancing. It is a genre distinct from other types of syncopated musical compositions from about the same period - for example, "coon songs" and cakewalks - the latter especially composed for dancing.

But our definition cannot be cut-and-dried, for "ragtime" once described the peppy, syncopated treatment of almost any type of music - that is how it was known to the public at large. Ragtime became a very real fad that covered a wide range of styles and even grew to describe things non-musical. Much like rock 'n' roll, heavy metal, jazz, and other popular genres of music, ragtime invited "the curiosity and even devotion of the young at the same time it disquiets the staid and established ... ragtime created an attitude and defined an era that reached beyond the music." (Real Ragtime booklet, 4)

Ragtime, the word, probably began life as a description of musical meter and certainly preceded the advent of the music of Joplin, Scott, and others. It was part of the late 19th century-lexicon to use "-time" as a suffix to describe a kind of music by the characteristics of its rhythm. For instance, waltzes were referred to as being "in waltz-time." "March-time" and "jig-time" also described the meter, basic rhythm, and function of style. Almost certainly, however, the term is a contraction for "ragged time," denoting a style of playing piano or banjo where the melody is "broken up" into short, syncopated rhythms while a steady overall beat is either played (piano) or implied (banjo). Taking a simple, conventional, and unsyncopated melody and breaking up the rhythm was known as "ragging," therefore, the resulting music was said to be in "ragged time."

Americans were first exposed to ragtime, en masse, at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. It is reported that some 27 million people passed through the Fair gates between May and October of that year. In 1896 "rag" and "rag time" were used to describe some newly published "coon songs," complete with outrageous parodies of black culture and speech. Among them was "All Coons Look Alike to Me," composed by black entertainer, Ernest Hogan. The second chorus offered a syncopated accompaniment, composed by Max Hoffman, along with the caption "Choice Chorus with Negro 'Rag' Accompaniment." Also during 1896, the cover of Ben Harney's song "You've Been a Good Old Wagon but You Done Broke Down" featured a banner proclaiming "Original Introducer to the stage of the new popular 'Rag Time.'" The following year saw the first published piano rags beginning with W. H. Krell's "Mississippi Rag."

Syncopation - The "Misplaced" Beat

Ragtime was both exciting and threatening to America's youth and staid polite society, respectively. The excitement came from syncopation - the displacing of the beat from its regular and assumed course of meter. Syncopation caused an individual to feel a propulsion, swing, and if played correctly, a musical looseness generally unknown to the public at large. The threat came from the very same displaced beat that evoked a strong connotation to the "low-class" Negro music found in brothels and saloons. The Midwest, particularly postbellum Missouri, was rife with saloons, brothels, and cabarets - all places where a pianist with a decent repertoire could earn a decent living.

The syncopated motif:

when counted in 2/4-time yields a feel of "short - long - short," (with a fourth sound added for definition), is the most common syncope found in ragtime. It comes from the cakewalk, a high-stepping dance popularized on the minstrel stage and which often served as the show's finale. Syncopations in the genre of piano ragtime are varied and intricate as well as simple.

This motif and more complex syncopations were commonly heard in "head" music (music played totally by ear) performed in the Caribbean, the southern states, and the Georgia Sea Islands. However, they are rarely found in published American music prior to the mid-1880s.

The complexities of non-written or "head syncopations" heard in rhythms of black slaves are addressed by music historian H. Wiley Hitchcock. He explains that the "...emphatic use of syncopation by American Negroes, partly derived from African drumming, partly derived from Afro-Caribbean dance rhythms." He then quotes from an 1835 letter to Edgar Allan Poe in which a friend describes a musical performance of some slaves in a practice known as "clapping Juba" ("Juba" is thought to refer to the English dance-name "jig.") The text is a remarkable testimony to the survival of syncopated elements in African drumming:

"There is no attempt to keep time to all the notes, but then it comes so pat & so distinct that the cadence is never lost. . . Such irregularities are like rests and grace notes. They must be so managed as neither to hasten or retard the beat. The time of the bar must be the same, no matter how many notes are in it." (Music in the United States, 120)

Much of what became the key ingredients of ragtime came from self-taught and largely uneducated musicians: slaves; hill folk of Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and the Carolinas; and minstrel-troupe musicians. The popularity and portability of the banjo, guitar, mandolin, and violin made these the instruments of choice for these itinerant musicians.

Banjo and Fiddle

It is not easy to tell when and where this lively, rhythmically propulsive music began, but it is possible to point to some very specific roots and to see it bear fruit. Though the evidence is not negligible, few contemporary writings chronicle the role that the banjo played in the development of ragtime. In a noteworthy comment made in 1881, the essayist Lafcadio Hearn wrote, "Did you ever hear negroes play the piano by ear?... They use the piano exactly like a banjo. It is good banjo-playing but no piano-playing." (Ragtime: Its History, Composers, and Music, 54, 58) In 1899 the music critic Rupert Hughes used the term "banjo figurations" to describe the piano ragtime that he had heard.

These peculiar rhythms and melodies had another source - the fiddle music that British Isles immigrants played to folk dances such as the jig and reel. "Turkey in the Straw," also known as "Old Zip Coon," for example, is thought to be of Scottish origin. This string music reveals the origin of a commonly used rhythmic device in ragtime, known as "secondary rag" - a simple, repeated, three-note motif that gives the listener a temporary off-center feeling by imposing an even pulse of three over a series of duple measures.

By the mid-1850s these ragged rhythms were finding their way into published banjo solos and methods. Much of this earlier published material came from the minstrel stage and was given an "Ethiopic" theme meant to evoke the plantation and the South. Not all Ethiopic themed music contained syncopation - quite a bit of it consisted of sentimental songs that evoked the themes of fondness for the South, the plantation, "Massa," and other aspects of slavery. But, syncopation rarely found its' way onto the printed page - a nod perhaps to the notion that it was difficult music to play unless you had an innate feeling for it.

The Heart of Ragtime

Missouri, located in the center of America, was the heartland of ragtime. As noted by popular music historians David Jasen and Gene Jones, "There were more rags - and more good rags - from Missouri than anywhere else." (That American Rag, 1) Perhaps it was the robust pioneer spirit that thrived in Missouri that created the environment for music like ragtime to flourish.

"...Missouri was destined by its location to be an area of commercial, social, and cultural change. Since the early nineteenth century, St. Louis has served as midpoint and stopover for north-south traffic on our largest river, and when going west was a national imperative, the city was the 'Gateway to the West.'" (TAR, 1)

During the 1880s, black entrepreneurs prospered in the sporting district of St. Louis, known as Chestnut Valley. John L. Turpin, a black businessman from Savannah, Georgia, made St. Louis his home in 1887 and opened a saloon called the Silver Dollar.

Turpin's teenage son, Tom, followed closely in his father's footsteps and by 1897 had opened his first saloon. That same year, young Turpin, also a self-taught pianist, had his composition "Harlem Rag" published by a local lawyer. "Harlem Rag" was a defining piece of piano ragtime and a model for its composers.

By 1900 Tom Turpin had acquired sufficient capital to open a new saloon and brothel, the Rosebud. His two young protégés, Joe Jordan and Louis Chauvin, frequented the establishment. With the constant rollicking, buoyant sound of ragtime, Turpin, Jordan, Chauvin, and many other enthusiastic proponents of the new music, made the Rosebud and St. Louis the capital of ragtime.

The regular flow of traffic through St. Louis and the rest of the state created a demand for accommodations and amenities for travelers. "As Missouri gentrified it became a state where a piano player could make a good living." (TAR, 2) As their salaries usually were nominal, the nomadic pianists made their best money from tips provided by the patrons of the many saloons and brothels that employed them.

It should be noted that when their music was eventually published, however, their royalties, although welcomed, were insignificant. About a dozen brave publishers risked putting some of this engaging, new music on sale to the public.

The most influential and memorable publisher was John Stark, a Civil War veteran and peripatetic ice cream salesman who loved music. He settled in Sedalia in 1886, opened a music store, and eventually turned to publishing. Stark met Scott Joplin in 1899 when the latter came into Stark's store to demonstrate his still unpublished "Maple Leaf Rag." Although Stark was impressed by the musicality of the piece, the technical difficulty of the piece led him to question its salability.

After some encouragement from his son, John Stark agreed to publish "Maple Leaf Rag" thus beginning a profitable business relationship for himself and Joplin and insuring immortality for ragtime. By 1914 "Maple Leaf Rag" had sold 1 million copies and Stark had amassed over 50 rags in his catalog.

In addition to Joplin, Stark's stable of ragtime composers included James Scott, Joseph Lamb, Artie Mathews, J. Russell Robinson, and others. Stark's original assessment and question about ragtime became a reality - it was delightful to the ear and heart although difficult to perform. He came to refer to the rag selections in his catalog as "classic rags." Composed by musicians of very high standards, they required a refined pianistic ability to perform them correctly. As a result, most of the "classic rags" were not bestsellers.

Missouri was also home to composer Arthur Pryor, who was born in St. Joseph in or around 1870. Pryor grew up playing in his father's band. Best known as a trombonist, Pryor wrote some of the most successful ragtime selections of the era. Some of his better-known rag titles are: "A Coon Band Contest," "Razzazza Mazzazza," "That Flying Rag," and "Frozen Bill." Although these compositions were published as piano solos, they achieved greater fame as band selections.

As assistant conductor and solo trombonist for the famous band of John Philip Sousa, Arthur Pryor helped spread the ragtime craze to Europe when the Sousa band toured there in 1900. Not only did he compose most of the band's ragtime material, but he also taught the Sousa musicians how to play the syncopations in a relaxed, unhurried way - the way that he heard it back in Missouri.

The Sound of Ragtime

By the early 1890s Americans had become infatuated with the multi-strained "March and two-step," which was basically the same as a march. Always in 2/4 or 6/8 meter, there was something stirring and optimistic about these pieces. Both meters yield a "two feel," but 6/8 has its intrinsic triple feel that creates a far-reaching swing. In fact, 6/8 two-steps were often referred to as "swings" as were the steps danced to them.

The ragtime compositions by Joplin and his circle were solely in duple meter and had a different sort of swing to them. A 6/8 two-step encouraged a more aerobic style of dance due to its broad swing. Ragtime's syncopations within the measure (and often over the measure), however, led to smaller and more gyrating dance steps, resulting in a series of popular "animal" dances such as the grizzly bear, bunny hug, turkey trot, and others.

Syncopation in ragtime was varied and more complex than the simple cakewalk. The syncopated rhythms found in the best rags were meant to evoke a looseness, natural flow, and drive recreated by reading and performing the music exactly as written. If performed correctly, the effect of the syncopation against the steady duple meter bass created an air of excitement and spontaneity not inherently found in most published music of the time.

The Fad

Ragtime was everywhere by the early 1900s - in sheet music, piano rolls, phonograph records, and ragtime piano playing contests, as well as in music boxes, vaudeville theaters, and bordellos. Publishing houses churned out piano rags and ragtime songs at a furious pace. Ragtime also appeared in arrangements for orchestras and wind bands. The majority of this music was the popular sort of ragtime that was cranked out mostly by Tin Pan Alley hacks. As with all types of music, there is always a bigger market for a less subtle, more digestible version of the original, more complicated, form.

The overabundance and popularity of ragtime was not always met with enthusiasm. For example, at the 1901 convention of the American Federation of Musicians in Denver, "Resolutions were adopted characterizing 'ragtime' as 'unmusical rot.' Members were encouraged to 'make every effort to suppress and [to] discourage the playing and the publishing of such musical trash." (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5/14/01, 1)

Similarly, at a 1902 meeting of the Lincoln Women's Relief Corps, a motion was made by the Grand Army Encampment of Music chairman E. B. Hay, that the bands in the Corps' "great parade be allowed to play 'Ragtime,' to break up the monotony of patriotic and martial airs..." The motion was met with great indignation, noting it "sacrilege to require Civil War veterans to march along Pennsylvania Avenue to 'ragtime' strains." (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 8/11/02, 11)

The press overreacted about ragtime eroding mores. In January 1900 the music monthly The Etude, in a piece entitled "Musical Impurity" noted: "The counters of the music stores are loaded with this virulent poison which in the form of a malarious epidemic, is finding its way into the homes and brains of the youth to such an extent as to arouse one's suspicions of their sanity." It went on to describe the melodic rhythm of ragtime as "double-jointed jumping jack airs that fairly twist the ears of an educated musician from their anchorage."

The Fad Fades

"Ragtime" as a catchall name for syncopated popular music remained popular through the 1910s. Ragtime's popularity faded around 1917 with the rise of another catchall term - "jazz" - used to describe peppy, noisy, popular music. Note that musicians active in New Orleans during the early 1900s who were later recognized as "jazz musicians" frequently, if not always, referred to the hot music they played as "ragtime."

It can be stated categorically, however, that the ragtime music of Joplin, Joseph Lamb, James Scott, and others had become nearly forgotten by 1920. Joseph Lamb's own daughter did not find out that her father was a well-known composer of ragtime until the dawn of his comeback during the 1950s. Ragtime did not disappear, nor was it "replaced" by jazz. However, it seems to have been supplanted by the novelty piano style that was ironically based on many of the traits found in ragtime - traits that had become anachronistic by 1920.

Novelty and Stride Piano

The technical demands of playing the works of Joplin, et al., are not inconsiderable. Their music demanded technique as a means to expression. What remained in the public's ear by 1920 were the virtuosic, technical aspects of piano ragtime. The genre was known as "novelty piano" - often referred to today as "novelty ragtime."

Ragtime scholar Ed Berlin points out that "novelty piano" is a latter-day term that was never used by its composers. (Ragtime: A Musical and Cultural History, 162) Nonetheless, it sprang out of a parody on the sound of ragtime played perhaps too fast - replete with wrong notes, humorous harmonic effects, the already clichéd secondary rag, and even the sound of a player piano slightly out of adjustment.

Novelty piano is not a disrespectful or nonmusical art. On the contrary, it incorporates both technique as a means to itself and the harmonic devices found in older classical piano music. The first hit of this genre, "Kitten on the Keys," appeared in July 1921. Composed by Elzear "Zez" Confrey (1895-1971), the piece was filled with tricky syncopations, unusual harmonic devices (such as strings of augmented chords, whole tone runs, parallel fourths) that somehow gave the listener the impression of humorously played wrong notes, and sudden shifts of key. Despite being difficult to play, "Kitten on the Keys" sold 1 million copies during its first year of publication. (Rags and Ragtime: A Musical History, 215)

Similarly, stride piano, which developed in and around Harlem, New York, during the 1910s by primarily black pianists, was never referred to as ragtime. Nonetheless, its composers and performers - such as James P. Johnson, Thomas "Fats" Waller, C. Luckyeth "Lucky" Roberts, and others were certainly well acquainted with ragtime and used its components as a point of departure.

The strong kinship among stride, novelty, and ragtime was the fact that all three were usually composed as multi-strained pieces. They were also pianistically conceived and were not meant for dancing. Both novelty and stride piano are typically performed at ragtime festivals today.

Ragtime Returns

Although ragtime was not a big attraction during the 1930s and 1940s, it was still played, and not just by pianists. Oftentimes a dance band recorded an up-to-date swing version of "Maple Leaf Rag." But more often than not, ragtime, when offered, would be played as quaint nostalgia with its characteristics parodied.

But ragtime also had advocates - its composers, practitioners, and admirers. Of latter, Rudi Blesh was greatly responsible for re-popularizing ragtime. Blesh, a student of art, architecture, and early jazz, came to New York from Berkeley, California, in 1945, while writing a book about the history of jazz. He and his colleague and companion, Harriet Janis, began Circle Records shortly thereafter.

Circle was the first record label to issue recordings from Jelly Roll Morton's 1938 recordings made at the Library of Congress. These recordings prompted much enthusiasm about early jazz styles and ragtime. Circle Records also issued a 3-disc album by jazz clarinetist Tony Parenti and his "Ragtimers," an ad-hoc jazz band playing ragtime based loosely on old stock arrangements. The album included Joplin's "Swipesy Cake Walk" and James Scott's "Grace and Beauty." The combination of these jazzmen's sensibilities combined with the formality of the old written arrangements yielded outstanding results.

Blesh and Janis set about researching ragtime in earnest. Their monumental book They All Played Ragtime was published in 1950.

During the 1950s ragtime was the theme of many record albums, but usually was treated as a caricature. Ragtime was frequently played on pianos especially rigged to sound out of tune or perhaps with thumbtacks in the hammers to evoke the sound of old-time saloon pianos. Despite such comical treatments, ragtime began to be heard with more frequency and respect than it had been in three decades. In 1959 and 1960 Max Morath, a talented pianist and entertainer who had some experience directing in television, produced a successful 12-part program entitled "The Ragtime Years" for National Educational Television. Since then, Max Morath and ragtime have become inextricably linked in the public's mind.

The 1968 Columbia Records release of "The Eighty-Six Years of Eubie Blake" was another milestone in the comeback of ragtime. Blake, a skilled composer and pianist was also one of the creators of the 1921 show "Shuffle Along" an important and ground breaking all-black music revue. As a child Blake studied piano formally at home in Baltimore. But he used to sneak out at night to hear the pianists in the low-down saloons nearby.

Blake's wide range of musical endeavors (including an ever-growing classical technique) led him to become familiar, even expert in ragtime. He ultimately composed a number of fine rags himself. As his 1968 recording shows, he was a vastly entertaining, vital performer - dexterous of hand and quick-witted.

Blake swiftly found a new career - traveling the world and appearing on the concert stage. He also was a frequent guest on late-night television talk shows, where he was always introduced to the millions viewers as a ragtime pianist.

In 1970 ragtime experienced a huge renaissance. Nonesuch Records was the first classical label to issue an album of ragtime; "Piano Rags by Scott Joplin," performed by composer, conductor, and musicologist Joshua Rifkin, created a sensation and quickly became a bestseller. Rifkin's approach was that of a classical pianist. At the same time he was respectful of the low-down element as well without resorting to any type of caricature. His playing of Joplin exhibited an understanding of the inherent swing and looseness that these pieces were meant to evoke. The first album was a remarkable success and was quickly followed by two more volumes.

The 1974 motion picture "The Sting" introduced the widest audience yet to the music of Scott Joplin. Although the choice of Joplin's music for a story set in the 1930s was historically inaccurate, the music underscored and supported the action on the screen perfectly. As a result, Joplin's "The Entertainer" went to the top of the pop record charts.

In 1972, Scott Joplin's ragtime-infused opera, Treemonisha, was revived. Joplin spent the last years of his life struggling to find a producer for his opera. He managed only to have it twice performed, once staged, and once done as a read-through. Joplin died in 1917, broken by the struggle. However, Treemonisha was later accorded its due - in 1976, it earned a special Pulitzer Prize and in 1983, a postage stamp was issued bearing Joplin's likeness.

Since the 1970s and the renaissance of ragtime there has been a great deal of activity in the areas of live performance, festivals, and scholarship in the field. Public radio has featured several series devoted to ragtime such as Terry Waldo's "This is Ragtime" and Galen Wilke's "It's Rag Time!" Talented composers such as Trebor Tichenor, David Thomas Roberts, Scott Kirby, and many others have made lasting contributions to the ragtime repertoire. There are ragtime organizations throughout the nation such as The Classic Ragtime Society of Indiana, The Northern Virginia Ragtime Society, The Sacramento Ragtime Society, and many others. There is even a ragtime-influenced fusion style called "terre verde" for which some contemporary ragtimers are actively composing and performing.

There have also been great advances in ragtime scholarship. Many fine books about ragtime have been published and there have been numerous theses and dissertations written on the subject.

Ragtime, like any other music, must be heard and really cannot be defined by words - just as words cannot be defined by music. But through more than 100 years, ragtime has had no trouble making its presence known and its composers, performers, and admirers all look forward to its future.

Bibliography

Books:

Periodicals and Newspapers:

Recordings: Compact Discs:

Citing Music Sources in Your Essay and Bibliography - the 2007 version

[This is an expanded version of a document originating from Western's Don Wright Faculty of Music-- the former Music History Department - now part of the Department of Music Research and Composition.]

Please BEWARE - the formatting is NOT OPTIMAL in this html document. I advise consulting the PDF version, for greater accuracy of spacing, etc. LRP.

INDEX, text-based citations:

INDEX, musical citations:

Be CONSISTENT!

Many students have probably not had much experience writing essays on music, a kind of writing that has its own stylistic conventions. Humanistic writing on music usually follows the Turabian guide (which is based on The Chicago Manual of Style), and Turabian will be followed in most of the history courses offered at Western. No matter what style guide is followed, it is important to be consistent and clear, so that the reader can easily track down your references.

Spell-out notes, keys and chords

When writing a music history essay, avoid using abbreviations and symbols:

middle C, E, G-natural, A-flat, F-sharp
the keys of F-sharp minor and E-flat major
the triad D-F-sharp-A

Use of hyphen in adjectival forms:

noun:adjective:
twentieth centurytwentieth-century music
quarter notequarter-note movement
eighth noteeighth-note triplet
sixteenth notesixteenth-note figure
thirty-second notethirty-second-note passage

Use of italics

In the days of typewriters, underlining was an instruction to the typesetter to set a particular passage in italics. With modern software, we now use italics.

Italicize all foreign words unless they are particularly familar in English usage:

tempo, cello, symphony

BUT

tempi, celli, opéra comique

And,

tempo, tempos, but tempi
libretto, librettos, but libretti
crescendo, crescendos, but crescendi

Also,

allegro, andante, cantus firmus, recitative, Kappellmeister

[Beware of "inventing" your own terms; there is NO such verb as "to crescendo"!]

Titles of musical compositions:

a) Titles of operas, oratorios, motets, tone poems, and other long musical compositions are italicized:

Orfeo

The Magic Flute

Zauberflöte

Death and Transfiguration

Messiah

b) Titles of songs and other short compositions are given in quotation marks:

"Jesu Joy of Man's Desiring"

"Sweet Surrender"


c)
Titles consisting of generic terms are capitalized but not italicized or put in quotation marks:

Brahms's Ballade op. 118 no. 3

Schubert's Piano Sonata in B-flat Major

Chopin's Waltz in C-sharp Minor


d)
Movement titles are generally capitalized; individual movements from larger works are placed within quotation marks:

Andante from Mozart's Symphony in G Minor

Kyrie from Beethoven's Missa Solemnis

"On a rainy night" from Beckwith's Lyrics of the T'ang Dynasty


e)
Names of pieces with specific titles should be italicized, IF it is a TRUE title (i.e., one that the composer has given to the work):

Schumann's Scenes from Childhood

Beethoven Symphony No. 3 (Eroica)

the Eroica Symphony by Beethoven


f)
Names of individual movements from larger compositions (including choral works), when such movements are referred to by title, are placed in quotation marks:

"Contentedness" from Schumann's Scenes from Childhood

"And He Shall Purify..." from Handel's Messiah

"Wohin" from Die Schöne Müllerin

"Air with Variations" (The Harmonious Blacksmith) from Handel's Suite no. 5 in E Major

Title for a musical example:

It is important to identify clearly the musical examples you choose to illustrate your essay. You should provide all the necessary details: composer, title, movement (if appropriate) and measure numbers:

Ex. 1. Mozart, Symphony no. 41 ("Jupiter") K. 551, I, mm. 17-23

In the text of the essay, refer to this example as Ex.1

CITATION STYLE:

FOOTNOTE [F] vs. BIBLIOGRAPHY [B]

The format of footnotes and bibliographic citations differs.

A footnote is like a sentence, with each major item (author, title, facts of publication) separated by a comma.

A bibliographic citation, which begins at the left margin, with all subsequent lines indented (known as a “hanging indent”), separates major elements with a period.

[You will notice that all FOOTNOTE examples are numbered consecutively, as they would be in an essay.] NOTE that all items in a Bibliography are normally listed alphabetically–by the author's surname.

If there is no author's name for an item, list that one item by its title (alphabetically) within the list - please see the Sample Bibliography on page 14 of this document.

The following examples conform to the 7th edition (2007) of Turabian.

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ARTICLES -- Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, Periodicals, Serials

The seventh edition of the Turabian guide offers different formats for magazine and journal citations, which can be problematic. Upon examining her citations (17.2-17.4), it appears that magazines and newspapers tend to offer one-page articles, while journal articles cover several pages. If you are writing a scholarly paper, choose the citation example for journals 17.2 – which requires you to specify the pagination of the entire article for your bibliography. [The footnote examples below refer to a single page, as is often the case for footnotes.]

      1. Richard Semmens, “La Furstemberg and St. Martin’s Lane: Purcell’s French Odyssey.” Music & Letters  78 (1997): 347. [F]

Semmens, Richard. “La Furstemberg and St. Martin’s Lane: Purcell’s French Odyssey.” Music & Letters 78 (1997): 337-48. [B]

      2. Stephen McClatchie, "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario," Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 387. [F]

McClatchie, Stephen. "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 385-406.[B].

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BOOKS

      3. Susan McClary, Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991), 197. [F]

McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 1991. [B]

      4. Janet R. Barrett, Claire W. McCoy and Kari K. Veblen, Sound ways of knowing : music in theinterdisciplinary curriculum (New York : Schirmer Books ; London : Prentice Hall International, 1997), 114-16. [F]

Barrett, Janet R. , Claire W. McCoy and Kari K. Veblen. Sound ways of knowing : music in the interdisciplinary curriculum. New York : Schirmer Books ; London : Prentice Hall International, 1997. [B]

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BOOK REVIEWS

Essentially, you are citing a journal article, with the added complication of including the title of the reviewed book. Remember that underlining a title = italics, so BOTH the title of the journal and the title of the book must be italicized.

      5. Robert Carl, review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary, in Notes:  Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 48 (June 1992): 1289. [F]

Carl, Robert. Review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary Notes: QuarterlyJournal of the Music Library Association48 (June 1992): 1288-1291. [B]

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CITING FROM A SECONDARY SOURCE -- or -- "I could not consult the 'original'"

Occasionally, one is forced to cite an entry which refers to another important work. It may be impossible to consult the "original" work, if the original is rare, signed-out, or otherwise difficult to locate. The secondary work may provide a portion of the original work, or may provide a necessary translation; you will cite the original as contained in the secondary source in the following manner:

      6. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2, edited by Max Friedlaender
(Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?), 212; in Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca
(New York: Norton, 1988), 338. [F]

Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca, 338-342.  New York: Norton, 1988. [B]

OR

      7. Paul Dukas, "Claude Debussy et Paul Dukas," La Revue Musical, Special Number:
"La Jeunesse de Debussy
" (May, 1926); cited by Jean Roy, trans. Denis Ogan, in accompanying
booklet to Debussy Melodies, performed by various singers with Dalton Baldwin, piano, EMI Classics,
CDM 7640962, 1980, 8. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 7048] [F]

Dukas, Paul. "Claude Debussy et Paul Dukas." La Revue Musical, Special Number: "LaJeuness de Debussy" (May, 1926). Cited by Jean Roy, trans. Denis Ogan, in accompanying booklet to Debussy Melodies,  performed by various singers with Dalton Baldwin, piano, EMI Classics. CDM 7640962, 1980, 8-10.  Compact disc. [UWO MCD7048] [B]

[Return to Index]

DICTIONARIES / ENCYCLOPAEDIAS (four different citation styles--choose ONE)

[FYI--S.v. is the abbreviation for a Latin term, sub verbo, or sub voce, meaning "under the word."]

      8. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964, s.v. "ornamentation." [F]

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964. S.v. "Ornamentation." [B]

*** OR ***

      9. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, 1986, s.v. "electro-acoustic music," by Jon H. Appleton. [F]


Subsequent short-form entries (of Ex. 9 above) can be abbreviated to:

      10. Appleton, "electro-acoustic music" in New Harvard Dictionary.[F]

The New Harvard Dictionary of Music. 1986. S.v. "electro-acoustic music" by Jon H. . Appleton. [B]


*** OR ***

Despite its name, TheNew Grove Dictionary is an encyclopaedia. The articles are written by experts, and signed; some articles have been extracted and published as individual books. While the preceding examples are all correct, some prefer the following citation format, which resembles the format for citing journal articles:

      11. Michael F. Robinson, "Auletta, Pietro," in Stanley Sadie, ed., New Grove Dictionary
of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1980), I: 698. [F]

Robinson, Michael F. "Auletta, Pietro." Stanley Sadie, ed., New Grove Dictionary of Music andMusicians. London: Macmillan, 1980. I: 697-698. [B]

[Return to Index]

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is also available online. Please be aware that the citation examples given in Grove Music Online reflect British practice, and as such are incorrect for those North Americans using either the Chicago Manual of Style or Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.

Please also bear in mind that The New Grove is a special case: while “Dictionary” may be part of its title, it is NOT a generic dictionary. References to “dictionaries” in style manuals simply do not apply to the various incarnations of the Grove dictionaries!

      12. Grove Music Online, s.v. "Schafer, R. Murray" (by Stephen Adams), http://www.grovemusic.com/
(accessed November 19, 2007). [F]

Adams, Stephen. S.v. "Schafer, R. Murray." Grove Music Online. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed
November 19, 2007). [B]

ESSAYS & FESTSCHRIFTEN

Collected Essays:

      13. Gary C. Thomas, "Was George Frideric Handel gay? : on closet questions and cultural politics,"
in Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology, eds. Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, Gary C. Thomas (New York: Routledge, 1994), 167. [F]

Thomas, Gary C. "Was George Frideric Handel gay? : on closet questions and cultural politics." In Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology, eds. Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, Gary C. Thomas,155-203. New York: Routledge, 1994. [B]

Festschrift, citing entire volume, with editor as 'author':

      14. David Hunter, ed., Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel
(Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science,
1994), 111. [F]

Hunter, David, ed. Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994. [B]

Festschrift, citing a single essay by one author:

      15. Calvin Elliker, "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly," in Music
Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, ed. David Hunter.
(Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science,
1994), 191. [F]

Elliker, Calvin. "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly." In MusicPublishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, edited by David Hunter. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994: 189-203. [B]

[Return to Index]

LETTERS, published

      16. Gustav Mahler to Justine Mahler, July 31, 1897, in The Mahler Family Letters, ed. Stephen
McClatchie (New York: Oxford, 2006), 320. [F]

Mahler, Gustav. Gustav to Justine Mahler, July 31, 1897. In The Mahler Family Letters, edited by Stephen McClatchie. New York: Oxford, 2006. [B]

LETTERS, unpublished

     17. César Cui to “Mon cher editeur” [Monsieur Heugel], November 16, [18]91, Gift of the Wilhelmina
McIntosh Book Fund of the Faculty of Music, The Opera Collection, MZ590, Music Library, University
of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Cui, César. Cui to “Mon cher editeur” [Monsieur Heugel], November 16, [18]91. Gift of the Wilhelmina McIntosh Book Fund of the Faculty of Music. The Opera Collection, MZ590. Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

MUSIC, PRINTED -- separate edition

      18. Louise Talma, Pastoral Prelude (Boston: Carl Fischer, 1952), 5. [F]

Talma, Louise. Pastoral Prelude. Boston: Carl Fischer, 1952. [B]

 

      19. Claude Debussy, "Le vent dans la plaine," Préludes, ed. Pierre Marchand (Paris: Durand, ca.
1910), 8. [F]

Debussy, Claude. "Le vent dans la plaine," Préludes. Edited by Pierre Marchand. Paris: Durand, ca.1910. [B]

OR:

      20. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, The Magic Flute, original text by Emanuel Schikaneder and Carl
Giesecke, English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin (New York: G. Schirmer, 1951), 157. [F]

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. The Magic Flute. Original text by Emanuel Schikaneder and Carl Giesecke. English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin. New York: G. Schirmer, 1951. [B]

[Return to Index]

MUSIC, PRINTED -- issued as part of an Anthology, or Collected Work

      21. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2, edited by Max Friedlaender
(Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?), 213.[F]

Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. [B]

OR:

      22. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Die Zauberflöte, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart neue
Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke
, series 2, workgroup 5, vol. 19 (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1970), 205. [F]

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Die Zauberflöte. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart neue Ausgabesämtlicher Werke, series 2, workgroup 5, vol. 19. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1970. [B]

OR:

      23. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272, in Twenty-one Concert Arias forSoprano,
v.1 (New York: G. Schirmer, 1952), 15.[F]

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Twenty-one Concert Arias for Soprano, v.1, 14-34.  New York: G. Schirmer, 1952. [B]

OR:

      24. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," in Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed.
Claude V. Palisca (New York: Norton, 1988), 338.[F]

Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V.
Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988. [B]

OR:

      25. Undine Smith Moore, “Mother to Son,” in Contemporary Anthology of Music by Women, ed. James R. Briscoe (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997), 224-28. [F]

Moore, Undine Smith. “Mother to Son.” In Contemporary Anthology of Music by Women, 224-28. Edited by James R. Briscoe. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997. [B]

MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS - ORIGINAL

      26. Gustav Mahler, "Symphony No. 1," copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-1889, CDN-Lu OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. [F]

Mahler, Gustav. "Symphony No.1." Copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-89, CDN-Lu
OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. [B]

MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS- FACSIMILE REPRODUCTIONS

      27. Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana di Firenze. 15th century
music manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F.
Alberto Gallo. (Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992), f. 14. [F]

Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana DI Firenze. 15th century music
manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F. Alberto
Gallo. Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992. [B]

MUSIC, COMMERCIALLY-RECORDED -- vinyl, cassettes, DATs, CDs, etc.

You will notice that several of the following examples do not include a date. While CDs frequently have a date of manufacture on the label, vinyl recordings often do not include this information. Rather than provide incorrect information, it is preferable to omit the date. The manufacturer's name and label number are sufficient to identify a recording. You may choose to include the Library's call number for an item, where applicable.

      28. Gustav Mahler, Symphony no. 1 in D Major (Titan), Columbia Symphony Orchestra conducted
by Bruno Walter (Columbia ML 5794), vinyl recording. [F]

Mahler, Gustav. Symphony no. 1 in D Major (Titan), Columbia Symphony Orchestra conducted by Bruno Walter. Columbia ML 5794. Vinyl recording. [B]

OR:

      29. Gustav Mahler, Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard
Bernstein, Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989, compact disc. [UWO MCD 6866] [F]

Mahler, Gustav. Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard Bernstein.
Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 6866] [B]

OR:

 

     30. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Konzert-Arien sung by Gundula Janowitz
with the Wiener Symphoniker conducted by Wilfried Boettcher, Deutsche Grammophon 449 723-2.,
recorded 1966, reissued 1966. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 11121] [F]

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Konzert-Arien sung by Gundula Janowitz with the Wiener Symphoniker conducted by Wilfried Boettcher. Deutsche Grammophon 449 723-2. Recorded1966, reissued 1996. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 11121] [B]

[Return to Index]

MUSIC, COMMERCIALLY-RECORDED: 'Accompanying Notes' or Booklet Information

The booklets which accompany CDs, the jackets/sleeves of vinyl LPs, and other "inserts" are legitimate sources of information, especially when the author's name is provided. Generally speaking, "signed" works are considered to be more reliable and scholarly than unsigned works. Again, the call number is optional. See also example no. 5 (above), which deals with a translated text.

      31. Humphrey Searle, "Anton Webern" in accompanying booklet, Webern: CompleteWorks Opp. 1-31 performed by the Juilliard String Quartet and the London Sinfonietta conducted by Pierre Boulez, SONY Classical S3K 45845, 1991, compact disc. [UWO MCD 6153] [F]

Searle, Humphrey. "Anton Webern" essay in accompanying booklet, Webern: Complete WorksOpp. 1-31 performed by the Juilliard String Quartet and the London Sinfonietta conducted by Pierre Boulez. SONY Classical S3K 45845, 1991. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 6153] [B]

[Return to Index]

OBITUARIES

Citing an obituary in your essay? Follow the format for ARTICLES (above). It makes no difference whether the obituary comes from a newspaper or a journal, so long as you provide the full pagination.[Return to Index]

REPRINT EDITIONS - BOOKS

Works of special significance are often reprinted. One must give details of both the original and the reprint editions as shown by the following examples.

      32. Allen Forte, The Compositional Matrix (Baldwin, N.Y.: Music Teachers National Association, 1961;
reprint, New York: Da Capo, 1971), 35-39 (page citations are to the reprint edition). [F]

Forte, Allen. The Compositonal Matrix. Baldwin, NY: Music Teachers National Association, 1961. Reprint: New York: Da Capo, 1971. [B]

REPRINT EDITIONS - SCORES

Many important music manuscripts have been made available in reproduction editions (see MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS - FACSIMILE REPRODUCTIONS above); important (or otherwise interesting) editions of early published music have also been reprinted, and are of interest to performers and scholars alike.

      33. William Boyce, Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatason various subjects. (London: I. Walsh, [1745]; reprint, Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d.), 8-9 (page citations are to the reprint edition). [F]

Boyce, William. Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatas on varioussubjects. London: I. Walsh, [1745]. Reprint: Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d.. [B]

THESES AND DISSERTATIONS

These are technically unpublished works, written to fulfill degree requirements at a particular institution.

A thesis is written in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Masters degree:

      34. Anthony Strangis, "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." (MM thesis,
University of Western Ontario, 1987), 179. [F]

Strangis, Anthony. "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." MM thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1987. [B]

A dissertation is written for a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy ) degree:

      35. Alison Stonehouse, "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." (PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997), 133. [F]

Stonehouse, Alison. "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997. [B]

[Return to Index]

TRANSLATIONS

See also example no. 7 above, which cites a translated text as given in a CD booklet.

      36. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments, trans. and edited by William J. Mitchell (New York : W. W. Norton, [1949]), 97. [F]

Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel. Essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments. Translated and edited by William J. Mitchell. New York: Norton, [1949]. [B]

[Return to Index]

VIDEO RECORDINGS

      37. Richard Strauss, Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall, 105 min., Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2, 1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26] [F]

Strauss, Richard. Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall. 105 min. Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2,1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26] [B]

[Return to Index]

CITING ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS [WWW, CD-ROMS, email]

Citing electronic documents and information differs somewhat from citation formats for print materials. You still require the same basic information:

  • author -- this can be a person, a company, a library
  • responsibility -- (Photographer) or (Painter) or ??
  • date -- of an art work, or date of copyright, or update
  • title -- title of the web-page, CD-ROM index or database
  • nature -- [Photograph] [Image of oil painting]
  • format -- [CD-ROM] or [Online] or [Electronic] or [Internet]
  • publisher -- data provider/company
  • identifier -- database identifier/accession number of article
  • date -- date you viewed/consulted the information

The date may be found on a CD-ROM disc, but when the CD-ROM is networked, you do not have the opportunity to see the actual disc. You may see a version number or copyright date as you log-in to a database or networked CD-ROM. Alternately, you may cite the date you accessed the product or service. The latest edition of Turabian does not require an "access date," however all other style guides do require this information.

Certain databases give accession numbers (e.g. ERIC), and those accession numbers should be included in your bibliographic citation. Essentially, you should provide sufficient information so that someone reading your essay can find the same information/site--which means that you should include the complete URL (beginning with: http://...) if you are citing a WWW-site. Given the "fugitive nature: of information on the WWW, if you are engaged in writing a thesis or dissertation, it would be wise to PRINT a copy of any needed web-document, and physically include it in your work (as an Appendix or other type of example).

Cite ONLY those electronic sources which are full-text or which provide other useful information. Indexing tools which provide citations only, such as the Music Index (print version), are not cited; do not cite electronic indexes, either -- unless they provide full-text articles!

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE, originally published in print form

If you are able to consult the print version of the article, then you can use the less-complicated citation format for ARTICLES (above). Electronic full-text articles may provide the pagination of the original, but rarely format the document with the original "page breaks", which has implications for citation format (meaning that you should count the number of paragraphs, and then specify them, by number).

      38. Linda Hutcheon and Michael Hutcheon, "Opera and national identity: new Canadian opera,"
Canadian Theatre Review
(Fall 1998): 5-8, Canadian Business and Current Affairs: par. 12, online, available: Silver Platter WebSPIRS, [database online, UWO], AN: 4413119, accessed 1999, December 12. [F]

Hutcheon, Linda and Michael Hutcheon. "Opera and national identity: new Canadian opera." Canadian Theatre Review (Fall, 1998): 5-8. Canadian Business and Current Affairs [database online, UWO], AN: 4413119. Accessed 1999, December 12.[B]

      39. Joanne Close, "A case for arts education," Teach Magazine (Nov/Dec 1997), 26-29, para. 4, online, Canadian Business and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO], AN 3701127, accessed 2000, January 5. [F]

Close, Joanne. "A case for arts education." Teach Magazine (Nov/DEC 1997): 26-29, CanadianBusiness and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO], AN 3701127. Accessed January 5, 2000. [B]

      40. Stephen McClatchie, “The 1889 Version of Mahler's First Symphony: A New Manuscript Source,”19th-Century Music  20 (Autumn, 1996): 102-3, http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0148-2076%28199623%2920%3A2%3C99%3AT1VOMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C
(accessed November 21, 2007). [F]

McClatchie, Stephen. "The 1889 Version of Mahler's First Symphony: A New Manuscript Source." 19th-CenturyMusic 20 (Autumn, 1996): 99-124. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0148-2076%28199623%2920%3A2%3C99%3AT1VOMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C
(accessed November 21, 2007). [B]

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE, originally published in French, translation available on WWW

      41. Louise Lamothe, "Who remembers Disc-O-Logue?" interview by Richard Baillargeon, Rendez-vous 92  (2nd annual joint bulletin of Yé-Yé Publications and SARMA), 1992?, para. 5 online, translation courtesy The National Library of Canada, ©1997-08-12; available from: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/discologue/intervie.htm, Internet, accessed 2000, December 17. [F]

Lamothe, Louise. "Who remembers Disc-O-Logue?" Interview by Richard Baillargeon. Rendezvous 92 (2nd annual joint bulletin of Yé-Yé Publications and SARMA), 1992? Translation courtesy The National Library of Canada, ©1997-08-12. Available from: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/discologue/intervie.htm. Internet. Accessed 2000, December 17. [B]

PHOTOGRAPHS ON THE WWW

Not all sites provide the "required" information for a complete bibliographic citation. Check the list given on the previous page [under CITING ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS] and include as much information as is possible.

      42. Lawrie Raskin, (Photographer), Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair Avenue
West in Toronto, January 20, 1983 [Photograph on Internet], Glenn Gould Archive, National Library
of Canada, available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/ iv41.jpg, Internet, accessed 2000, January 7. [F]

Raskin, Lawrie. (Photographer). Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair AvenueWest in Toronto. [Photograph], [Internet] January 20, 1983. Glenn Gould Archive, National Library of Canada. Available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/iv41.jpg. Internet. Accessed 2000, January 7. [B]

[Return to Index]

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER – the sample bibliography

Bibliographies are arranged in ALPHABETICAL ORDER - by the author’s surname. If, on occasion, you have NO author’s name - the convention is to use the TITLE (and IGNORE leading articles such as “the”, “a”) when placing the item alphabetically within your list.

Hanging indents are required. A bibliographic citation is single-spaced, with a double-space between citations.

Following is a sample bibliography, using items cited within this handout (as this is intended to be a sample, all preceding examples have NOT been included - however your bibliography must include all cited/footnoted references). I have included one additional item, to illustrate the convention used - to denote a second item by the same author (i.e. see the Mahler and McClatchie citations below).


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Boyce, William. Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatas on various subjects. London: I. Walsh, [1745]. Reprint: Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d..

Carl, Robert. Review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary. Notes:Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 48 (June 1992): 1288-1291.

Close, Joanne. "A case for arts education." Teach Magazine (Nov/Dec1997): 26-29, Canadian Businessand Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO AN 3701127. Accessed January 5, 2000.

Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana DI Firenze. 15th century music
manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F. Alberto
Gallo. Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992.

Elliker, Calvin. "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly." In Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, edited by David Hunter. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994: 189-203.

Forte, Allen. The Compositonal Matrix. Baldwin, NY: Music Teachers National Association, 1961. Reprint: New York: Da Capo, 1971.

Mahler, Gustav. "Symphony No.1." Copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-89, CDN-Lu OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

______. Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 6866]

McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.

McClatchie, Stephen. "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 385-406.

______. "'Liebste Justi': The Family Letters of Gustav Mahler." In Mahler Studies, ed. Stephen E. Hefling, 53-77. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 1980. S.v. "Auletta, Pietro," by Michael F. Robinson.

Raskin, Lawrie. (Photographer). Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair AvenueWest in Toronto. [Photograph], [Internet] January 20, 1983. Glenn Gould Archive, National Library of Canada. Available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/iv41.jpg. Internet. Accessed 2000, January 7.

Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988.

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964. S.v. "Ornamentation."

Stonehouse, Alison. "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997.

Strangis, Anthony. "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." MM thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1987.

Strauss, Richard. Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall. 105 min. Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2, 1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26]

Revised and updated by: Lisa Rae Philpott, Music Reference Librarian, 2007/11/21. Re-formatted (again) using Drupal, 2010/03/19. Re-formatted (footnotes incorrectly displayed HANGING indents, uncertain as to timing of that change), 2014.7.4th.

Please send comments/corrections/suggestions to: Lisa Rae Philpott

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