Pakistan is a developing country and faces all social problems that developing countries face along with political instability that further aggravates the problem. Currently, Pakistan has many challenges to face in the form of socio-economic problems. One of the big social problems for Pakistan is poverty. 70% of the population of Pakistan lives in villages. According to an analysis, poverty has increased; roughly from 30% to 40% of the country’s population is merely earning their livelihood below the poverty line. Second problem Pakistan is facing the dragon of over-population. The population growth rate is very high and is among the highest in the world. The massively increasing population has almost outstripped the resources in production, facilities and in job opportunities. Pakistan is faced with the problem of acute unemployment.
It is always considered to be killer for an economy. It has negative impact on society. It creates frustration and revengeful attitude. It leads to an increase in the incidences of crimes. Owing to poverty and unemployment, parents instead of sending their children to schools, prefer child labour for them. Rising poverty in Pakistan necessitates that 10 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) be spent on social sector including education, health, safe drinking water, sanitation and basic infrastructure. At present, Pakistan spends only three per cent of its GDP on health and education whereas India allocates nine per cent for these sectors. Such a meagre amount which is already insufficient to cater for the needs is further misappropriated. There are less hospitals and medical centres. If there are any, the people are unable to afford their and their children’s health expenses. So the health problems grow unchecked. It is very depressing that basic health facilities are not available to the half of the population.
Social problems are interlinked with economic problems. Economic prosperity serves as a backbone for the overall progress of a nation. When citizens of a country are free from worries of earning a livelihood to sustain their lives, they can focus on education, improvise healthcare, develop technologies that make life easy. Poor economic conditions are the root cause of so many problems that exist in a society. Pakistan economic conditions are pathetic as if power crisis, lack of foreign investment for the development of industrial zones, backward and out-dated technology were not enough.
This book is a collection of papers presented by eminent economists and social scientist during the two days national conference under the title "Socio-Economic Challenges Faced by Pakistan" held on 2nd & 3rd June 2008 at the Convention Centre of the International Islamic University (IIU), Islamabad. The conference was organized by the International Institute of Islamic Economics (IIIE) with the objective to provide an appropriate forum for debate and policy discussions on the emerging issues faced by the economy and to facilitate the governmental efforts, in the upcoming budget to address the emerging issues faced by the economy at the critical juncture which according to some was characterized as economic "melt down". That this national conference was indeed a success is manifest from overwhelming participation of the eminent economists from all parts of the country who either presented scholarly papers or took part in the dialogue by chairing various sessions of the conference and contributing their valuable suggestions.
- Irfan, Mohammad
- Muhammad Yasin, Hafiz
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