Scyllium Canicula Classification Essay

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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Scyliorhinidae (Cat sharks)
Etymology: Scyliorhinus:Greek, skylla = a kind of shark + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 780 m (Ref. 56504), usually 80 - 100 m (Ref. 81056).   Subtropical; 63°N - 12°N, 18°W - 36°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: Norway and British Isles south to Senegal, including the Mediterranean. Possibly Côte d'Ivoire. Some populational differences exist between Catulus duhameli (a name for the Mediterranean canicula based on size) and this species which may eventually be expressed as subspecies. The only reported observation of this species in Crimean waters was in 1937, which is possibly erroneous (Ref. 897).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm57.0, range 41 - 64 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4645); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 81067)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsalspines (total): 0; Dorsalsoft rays (total): 0; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0. A slender, dark-spotted catshark with 8-9 dusky saddles (often obscure or absent), greatly expanded anterior nasal flaps, reaching mouth and covering shallow nasoral grooves, labial furrows on lower jaw only, first dorsal fin originates well behind the pelvic fins, second dorsal fin much smaller than first (Ref. 244).

Most common catshark in coastal waters of Europe (Ref. 32804). Inhabits continental shelves and uppermost slopes. Found on sandy, coralline, algal, gravel or muddy bottoms. Occurs mainly between 10-100 m depth in the northeast Atlantic and up to 400 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 88187) and from 288-780 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). They sometimes occur in midwater. Nocturnal species, males resting on substrate and females hiding in shallow (0.5-1.5 m depth) caves and crevices during the day (Ref. 88835). Feed on a variety of benthic invertebrates, including mollusks, crustaceans, small cephalopods, polychaete worms, and small bony fishes (Ref. 244, 11889). Males have been found to forage in shallow prey-rich areas with soft sediment or areas covered with filamentous algae (Ref. 88836). Oviparous, with a single egg laid per oviduct at a time. Detect weak electric fields generated by other organisms (e.g. potential prey) (Ref. 10311). Utilized fresh and dried-salted for human consumption, also for oil and fishmeal.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, laying paired eggs (one per oviduct) in shallow subtidal areas, although some egg cases have been found in the deeper part of intertidal zones (Ref. 244). Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). The egg cases are anchored to macroalgae, sea grass or sessile erect invertebrates such as poriferans, bryozoans and hydroids (Ref. 32804, 58137). The capsules have tendrils at each corner used for anchorage purposes. Egg capsule size varies according to locality and female size (Ref. 244) and ranges between 4.9-7.0 cm length and 1.5-3.0 cm width (Ref. 88837). Egg cases may be deposited throughout the year, peaking in June and July (Ref. 32804). Recent studies estimate fecundity of females from the northeast Atlantic to be at around 29-62 pups (Ref. 32804). Fully formed pups hatch after 5-11 months, depending on water temperature (Ref. 244, 32804). Newly hatched pups are about 8-10 cm in length (Ref. 78469).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial

FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

Tools

Bio-Quiz | E-book | Field guide | Identification keys | Length-frequency wizard | Life-history tool | Point map | Classification Tree | Catch-MSY |

Special reports

Check for Aquarium maintenance | Check for Species Fact Sheets | Check for Aquaculture Fact Sheets

Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.2 - 16.2, mean 10.1 (based on 28 cells).

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].

Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00219 (0.00182 - 0.00263), b=3.09 (3.03 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.20; tm=9; Fec=96).

Prior r = 0.11, 2 SD range = 0.01 - 1.05, log(r) = -2.21, SD log(r) = 1.13, Based on: 2 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 10 Fec records

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (62 of 100) .

Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.

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